In this Article we are going to jump into a very special journey!! The History Of Super-heroes!! We are going to travel in time and discover the amazing world of humanity ideals and yearns!! A world full of mystery, amazing deeds, and adventure!! Come on and let’s find out what means to be earth’s greatest heroes!!
Once upon a time…
…artists and dreamers created Superheroes, using visual art materials and techniques to give life to great characters. All those experience have had open doors for future generations. With technology, traditional way of making art gives space to new techniques and tools, uncovering a new way of making art: the Digital way. Digital art is just another way of making art, it will never replace or end traditional art. It’s just a different tool, that’s all. Either way, Artists and creators develop new worlds and new stories for the amusement of us all.
First created by young people who dreamed of escape from the major US economic depression beginning in 1929, the Superheroes appeared in stories in disposable comics, which could be purchased at newsstands for only a few cents. But, before that, they were published in newspapers as Sunday Comics. Since then, those characters expanded into TV, Games, Movies, Internet, Toys, and all kinds of products. Today, there are many Superheroes names participating on grand adventures against evil and darkness. Superheroes conquered the world!!!
The Wonder Woman appeared in the version number 8 of the All-American’s All Star Comics.
The stories of characters in comic represent all what we would like and could become, the meaning of the symbols are much more important than the characters themselves.
The Super-Man, for example, does not really exist but, the meaning of what he represents is very real, he is a Symbol of: Justice, Truth and the American way!!
Since June 1938 Superman has been representing the ideals of truth and justice, inspiring millions on their journey.
Action Comic #1 with the first Superman’s appearance is probably the most important magazine in the history of comic books. A copy of the magazine was recently sold for $ $ 2,161,000.00 !!! At the year it was published, it was sold for 0.10 US cents.
Phantom and Superman were two of the very firsts super-heroes created by Nerds fans of pop culture. Born Leon Harrison Gross in St. Luis Missouri, Lee Falk Created the Phantom and got it published in February 1936. Two Jewish boys from Cleveland, Ohio: Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster created Superman around 1934 and first published the character in June 1938.
Crime aversion by Jerry Siegel came after his father’s death in a robbery when he was still a teenager and also because the guilty criminals were never caught.
Maybe for him, Superman was, in his fantasy, a way to prevent this tragic event of his life. Someone who could protect the weak and oppressed…
In 1935, 130 different newspapers published around 2000 comic books to millions of readers. The so called comics strips. For the talented Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel this seemed like a golden opportunity, however, they were rejected again and again by the editors of the time…
Other names working in the industry of comics were considered celebrities like: Chester Gould with Dick Tracy, Al Capp with Li’l Abner, Hal Foster with Tarzan, written by Edgar Rice Burroughs, Alex Raymond with Flash Gordon, among others.
Detective Comics, needed material for an action magazine and decided to give a chance to Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster with Superman history… In 1938 Joe Suster and Jerry Siegel finally realize their dream of working for a newspaper and publish their first Superman stories in color every Sunday.
That same year they were hired by DC comics to do something unprecedented: An entire magazine devoted to only one character: Superman!! YES Superman!! The same character that they were trying to sell for 5 years. The creators have won a total of $ 130 dollars for 13 pages of Superman !!! So begins the Adventures of Superman.
The appearance of Superman at this time inspired and represented a symbol of hope, strength and resilience. In its first edition Superman saved an innocent from death penalty, he defends a wife of domestic abuse and stop a conspiracy between a senator and an army manufacturer.
Superman – “In order to best use his super powers in the endless struggle for justice and truth, Superman disguises himself as Clark Kent, a shy reporter for a great metropolitan newspaper.” The immigrant Alien becomes a great symbol of the American way of life !!!
With the success of the man of steel, all kinds of Superheroes began to appear and, in late 1939, there were already seven publishers publishing about 50 different titles of comic books, including Green Lantern, Atom, Zatara, among others…A year later, more than twenty publishers were publishing 150 different magazines in the comic field !!! Mostly Superheroes, with sticky and colorful clothes.
DC comics was the most prestigious publisher. Among his most popular characters was the Sandman, who used a weapon that fired a special gas that forced the criminals to tell the truth while sedating them.
Timely Comics, later to become Marvel Comics, had strange and morally ambivalent characters such as: Vision, Daring, Human Torch, an android who used his powers for good, Prince Namor, the first antihero of the comic stories.
Quality Comics had more inventive characters as Plastic-man, a former criminal whose accident in a chemical factory helped turn it into a good plastic man. Quality also published The Spirit of the acclaimed Will Eisner.
And there was FOX, a poor imitation of comics. His characters were imitations of others as Blue Beetle, his most important character in time, a copy of The Green Hornet. But, they weren’t the only ones copying characters around…
Another comic line were known as: The Pulps. dark and violent characters as The Shadow.
THE UGLY SIDE OF COMICS
The publishers of the time imposed to creators with a service provision contract, which, in times of economic crisis, the only way to keep working for a publisher was to relinquish copyright on their characters, from this point on, the copyright of created characters would belong to the publishers. It was that way, with contracts and unconscionable clauses that Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel lost their biggest and most famous character, like all artists and creators of Super-Heroes of the time. They created the myths of our time and have been pilfered, in a “legal” way, but totally immoral, their right to intellectual property.
When you created a character to a publisher, they automatically owned the character, the creator had no copyright or intellectual property of the character anymore. (Today the situation haven’t change much, large companies exploring and taking advantage of artists). The hours of work time were also abusive. Day and night was a slave production line !!
“There was a line of workers, artists, letteres and colorists working at the same time, they described it as slave labor. There was nothing like it, nothing like it. I loved every moment of it… “
The creators do what they do because they love it. It doesn’t mean it’s ok to take advantage of them, does it?
In the spring of 1939 appears another icon of comics: Batman. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger. Batman is the Sherlock Holmes and one of the best athlete and entrepreneur on the planet.
Being much more vulnerable than any other superhero, it was precisely this feature that boosted the popularity of the Batman, or may I say Marketing? Because The Phantom was also a non super powerful hero and yet not as well known as the Batman.
Batman’s origins connects us with the universal emotion of the fear of losing our family and the ones we love. It was an assault on a dirty alley of Gotham that Bruce Wayne lost his parents and that was the beginning of his journey.
“I swear by the soul of my parents to avenge their deaths, spending the rest of my life at war criminals. Criminals are superstitious and cowardly, so my disguise must strike terror in their hearts! I’ll become a bat !! “ Bruce Wayne.
Many superheroes have come up with some event in relation to death. Death seems to be a great motivation for a superhero. The feeling of injustice can only be stooped with the stemmed action of searching for justice with the punishment of the perpetrator criminal.
In two years, two of the most iconic characters of comics were created : Super-man and Batman. The Super powerful and the Mysterious detective. Two opposites that made history!!
But it was Bob Kane assistant, Jerry Robinson, creator of the first and greatest super villain of all time: The Joker !!! From the first appearance of the villain, he was portrayed as a serial killer !!! The killer clown !!!
In the early 40 almost 90% of children read comics in the United States and, thinking this target group, there are the “partners” as Robin.
Billy Batson Captain Marvel was both hero and sidekick with stories written by Bill Barker and designed by C. C. Beck. Marvel Capital also presented a whole superhero family, tronando is a best seller.
But, Super-man was still the most popular, selling all kinds of products, toys, clothes and comics to win his own radio program, now with Jimmy Olsen as its Sidekick why? at the radio he really needed someone to talk to…
WORLD AT WAR
On May 27, 1941 President Roosevelt issued a statement:
“… What started as a European war became, as has always been the intention of the Nazis, a war to dominate the world.”
It was in this time of distress and uncertainty that a group of Jewish creators, probably with a sense of urgency greater than the vast majority, that the Nazis had to be contained, which created a character ready to confront and defeat the Nazis: Captain America!!!
In 1941 Captain America was created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby. The character appears as an expression of freedom and fight against all forms of dictatorship and injustice.
“This was a time where they were all patriots. There was not a day that did not receive news from Europe on newspapers. And it was ridiculous not to have a Captain America because it was an idea that would be purchased by everyone, so Joe and I did it. “Jack Kirby
“Here’s the character – I think he shouldn’t have a kid buddy or he’ll be talking to himself all the time – I’m working up script – send schedule – regards” Joe
For all the family of the United States, Captain America meant a connection to their beloved ones facing the danger of war.
During the time when Bucky and Captain America fought against the Nazis, a name stood out for his work in the comic book industry: Jack Kirby. The artist Jack Kirby is known until the present day as King Kirby.
Pearl Harbor – was an attack carried out by the Japanese to North American West Coast that caused terror and fear with the kamikaze strategy.In this period of history, the stories of comic publications reflected the war with a superhero battalion fighting the Axis of Evil.
Uncle Sam himself entered the battle portrayed in the comics as an American hero in the war and 70 million readers consume comics at this point in time, more than half of the population. One in four of the magazines sent to the North American troops facing war was a comic book.
While men were fighting, women showed their value with hard working, building and maintaining the country. In the comics however, they were still portrayed as secondary characters. Before the war, there were only a few super-heroines: Olga Mesmer, Scarlet O’Neil and Miss Fury.
But in December 1941, The super-heroine who would truly represent the strength, power and women’s intelligence was nothing less than: Wonder Woman.
Woman Wonder is Diana, Princess of the Paradise Island Amazons. Created by a psychologist named William Moulton Marston, Wonder Woman would become another icon of the superhero story characters. William also claimed to have created the polygraph lie detector. One of the weapons used by Wonder Woman was her Lasso of Truth, able to force anyone under her command to tell the truth. His stories were full of feminine power, gender identity, political hierarchy etc… At the same time, stories filled with fetishes of women represented submissively, being tied, chained or collars.
Unfortunately in 1942, Wonder Woman appeared on a list of magazines banned by the national organization of the Catholic Church for decent literature.
This was a glorious period for comics with the creation of iconic characters that represent the best that humans has to offer, symbols of what we wish to become.
The triad created this time will be remembered forever as the old characters of Greek, Norse and Roman history.
The most important triad the world of superhero comic books would ever see: Superman, Bat-Man and Wonder Woman!!!
DC Comics was the comic industry giant.
THE UGLY SIDE OF COMICS
Some magazines also reproduced extremely racist images against Japanese. Portraying the Japanese people in the shapes of animals or demons. One of the disadvantages of the industry at the time were stereotypes and racism in the way depicted other cultures and ethnicities.
“Japanese were demons with fire coming out of the mouth, the Germans were blond hulks that despite strong were cowards, blacks fleeing the fighting … While the heroes were never very smart … might makes it right!” – Jules Feiffer
After the victory over the Japanese in 1945, the United States receive with open arms their true superheroes, the soldiers come back home.
And after the war, the Superheroes of comic books seem less and less interesting.
The interest in superheroes had passed and the public was looking for something more adult and sophisticated.
The time of Captain America was over, he defended his country and now lost importance.
The Superheroes were exchanged now for romance comics, western, teenagers, crime, horror thriller.
CRISIS IN THE MARKET
In 1954 a subcommittee of juvenile delinquency was investigating the content of comic books and their effects on children. The main witness was a doctor born in Germany, Frederic Wertham, who had attacked the comic books in his book: Seduction of the Innocent, released in the ‘50s. It was open the witches hunting season.
All the great heroes were attacked for promoting a subversive lifestyle: Bruce Wayne was a socialite whose partner a teenager?? From an innocent story emerged the perversities of an evil mind!!
“Bruce was portrayed with Dick, the two in bed together. It was interpreted as the dream of two homosexuals living together.”
Superman was accused of using an “S” as a symbol of superiority of one race … An oppressor! They accused Superman to be the exact opposite of what he is!
At that point the comic went from bad to worse. There were even movements organized by the church and educational systems where people gathered to burn piles and piles of comic.
At the beginning of the legislative hearings was created the Comics Code Authority, to police the content of their magazines.
Crime Magazines, Thriller and Horror that had won its place naturally, after the war, were losing their strength with the code of censorship. The Superheroes also went through a bad time. The code nearly wiped out the stories in the comics market. For the creators, it was time to hang up the cleats and look for another line of work. For the few who could survive working as a comic book creator, yet was still painful to see the blow that the industry had taken.
It was a time for Super-Heroes fans enjoy themselves in another media: Television.
Again Superman !! The TV show of the 50s kept the superheroes genre alive!
Thank you Superman !!!
Gaining the trust of your audience again, Superman recovers the genre strength, and makes it clear to the world that Superheroes are symbols that represent the values, hopes and dreams of everyone on the planet !!
TURNING THE TABLE
While the United States was dedicated to the space race and fought for civil rights and against the political crisis, the new generation of heroes has grown and developed. In the 60’s cultural revolution gained force, a new wave of super-heroes emerged. more elaborate characters facing a more mature and adult audience. Racial diversity has come to comics with Panther and Luke Cage.
At that time, Marvel was fighting just to stay in the market and, when Stan Lee was just about to give up the business, he creates the Fantastic Four!! From the success of the Fantastic Four appeared many, many characters of great impact and importance to the comics industry. The Avengers, Daredevil, Nick Fury…The Marvel era began, Spider-man, Hulk and Fantastic Four won the stalls and the hearts of the fans. This new age of superheroes not only gained new powers but problems of everyday life as well.
In partnership with Jack Kirby, Stan Lee created from that moment on, a new universe of characters for Marvel.
The space age had great impact on the epoch comics, characters and stories exploring the theme fantasizing about the unknown universe and its mysteries.
The operation problems in the lives of characters from Marvel by writer Stan Lee created an emotional connection between the reader and the character, resulting in a resounding commercial success.
Stive Ditko and Stan Lee, then created, a shy and unlucky teenage student like any other normal teenager but, when bitten by a radioactive spider, gains superpowers that turn into The Spectacular Spider-Man!! The death of his Uncle Ben occurred when he allows a burglar to escape from a robbery, when he could have prevented the crime, and so, learn one of the greatest lessons of comics until modern times: with great power comes great responsibility. In this crucial moment of his life he promised to use his new skills for the good of humanity.
Peter Parker has a life full of problems in his teens and thus creates a strong connection to each comic book reader. And each individual in his teens facing any kind of difficulty, anxiety or frustration, sees themselves in the character, making Peter and the reader the “same”. This strong emotional connection to the reader made Spider-man one of the most successful comic books characters of all time since Super-man.
The Flash with Carmine Infantino was renovated to take on a more modern and balanced characteristics with that time.
While the DC comics of superheroes were portrayed still as “Greek gods”, without doubt, without fear, without human weaknesses so to speak, the Marvel characters were explored exactly in more human terms and it was in this way that a certain reality tone was inserted in the comics world.
The assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963, had a major impact on the world of comics and four months later Jack Kirby and Stan Lee worked to resurrect one of the greatest icons of the world of superheroes: Captain America. For a generation traumatized by the JFK assassination, Captain America rises again in defense of Freedom and Democracy.
Jack Kirby reinvented comics of that era and became a divisor of waters in the industry, developing comics as no one had done before, his originality, dynamism and narrative became a milestone in the industry. The era before and after Jack the King Kirby.
POP Art and comic books were part of consumer culture when Adam West came on the scene in 1966. Adam West played Batman in a television series that won the audience with his humorous version of the character. Obviously the stories in Batman comics sales grew exponentially with the TV show.
The fever that accompanied the Batman TV show took the North American continent, but all that is good ends eventually and when the TV show ended, sales of Batman comics plummeted.
While the DC tried to capture a more infantile public, the Marvel on the other hand was looking for a more mature audience. Jim Steranko used in his arsenal all kinds of visual language possible. Because of this new approach, Steranko brought a new target audience for the stalls: Art Students.
When Jim appeared unannounced in the Marvel offices and persuaded Stan Lee to see his portfolio, not only won a title but, have had the privilege to choose which one. Jim decided by what he thought was the worst of Marvel’s titles and so began working with Nick Fury.
He created the first sequence completely without balloons in comic books, 3 pages of silence…
Civil rights were radically changing American culture in 1967 and the comic books followed the evolution. In 1966 Tchala was introduced to comics as the first black character in the story. Followed by Luke Cage, the first mercenary of comics.
1970 DC Comics decides to put two of its greatest characters together, Green Lantern and Green Arrow. With artist Neal Adams as the prejudice was introduced into the comics world.
The classic screenplay by Denny O’nneil put two heroes, one against the other, where one represents the status quo while the other represented the oppressed. These character went on a trip to discover america and bring the reader along. In this way, this classic of comics, reports facts as the deaths of Martin Luther King and Jhon F. Kennedy.
From this point on, everything could be discussed in the comics, not just stories of adventure and action, but social problems, sociological, economic, etc… But, according to the Comic Authority Code not Drugs.
By the time Neal Adams designed the cover where the son of Oliver Queen (Green Lantern) used drugs, this cover was rejected for not passing the “acceptable” criteria of the code.
In 1970 when Nixon declared drugs as public enemy number one, comic books were still prohibited from touching the subject.
That’s when Stan Lee received a letter from the Department of Health, Education and Well Being, recognizing the strong influence of Spider-man character on youth and considering the benefit of a drug history with the character.
Stan created a story with a character who in the delirium of the influence of drugs jumped from a building and was saved by the hero! When the story was sent to be evaluated by the Authority Code staff, they rejected it!!
It was not the kind of story that could pass its strict criteria for approval. It was then that Stan Lee took a brave decision, he published the story without the seal of approval!!!
This was the first time a story was published without the seal of approval of the Authority Code of Comics !!!
And of course, was a total success!! Not only tackled a sensitive issue as the problems we face regarding to drug abuse, but opened the door to discussion of any subject using the media, overturning once and for all the infamous Code Authority of Comics!!
Not that Stan had thought of creating the first drug story, but he was the guy who had the courage to do it!!! After the episode, the doors were open for DC comics to launch its history with the Green Arrow.
Developments in themes and plots handled by comic creators since that time, have being increasing.
When Lois Lane was transformed into an African woman for a day, had to deal with the prejudice problems. In the 70s, feminism emerged, fighting for equal rights between men and women, it was then that Wonder Woman lost her powers and became in a crime fighter representing the average woman.
Lynda Carter takes the role of Wonder Woman in the 70’s TV Show and enchants a whole generation. Accompanied with other shows like the Incredible Hulk.
In the 70s, the crime rate in New York increases dramatically, also affecting the comics. The city became the center of the crime !! Many writers who lived in New York, regarded the world as an unsafe place to live and portrayed the situation in the comics. One of the stories that portrayed this moment in real life was the death of Gwen Stacy.
The hero always rescues the maiden certain danger? Wrong!!! Gwen died in a dramatic and chilling story of Spider-man.
Dirty Harry and Death Wish were the vigilantes from TV fighting the wave of reality crime shows, while in the comics, came the Punisher. An anti-hero: instead of arresting the bad guy he just took his life with a death sentence, jury, judge and executioner !!
Nixon resigns due to his government corruption scandal and the Punisher has a beautiful solution to this problem… The abuse of power at the White House was even portrayed in a history of Captain America, where he abandoned his identity and became a vigilante with the name of Nomad, a hero without a country.
In the late 70s the United States went through an economic crisis, with inflation problems, lack of gasoline. It was a corruption crisis.
Currently the comic characters are more complex than ever, their lives represent in many ways, in the minds of great comic creators, a fantasy world where these characters, heroes and villains, reflect reality, and what we would like to be, in many cases, our own reality. Characters like Super-man, representing all that we would like to be: incorruptible, courageous, fair and unselfish.
The mythology of the comic books spreads around the world and created a connection that transcends time and space.
And that’s why comic conventions grows each year. Thousands of people create amazing cosplayers of their favorite characters and move millions of dollars in the entertainment industry. Art, games, toys, comics, etc…
In 1975 Super-man film was produced by Warner Brothers, a movie of $30.000.000 USD, starring: Marlon Brando, Gene Hackman Glenn Ford and Christofer Reeve. Debuting in 1978, the film was a huge success. The special effects used in the film were unprecedented, creating the illusion that a man can fly believable. Until today no one could interpret Super-man as Christofer Reeve, the biggest Super-man ever.
THE UGLY SIDE OF COMICS
The creators of the character, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, are no longer receiving income relating to his character due to the contract signed with DC comics where they ceded their copyright for the company. Objectively speaking, both faced financial difficulties and extreme poverty, as in opposition to their creation that yielded millions… the ugly side of the industry is showing apparent. With the support of Neal Adams and Jerry Robinson and the American Society of Cartoonists, they negotiated an agreement with Warner Communications. Siegel and Shuster would receive an annual pension of $ 20,000 each, a crumb in the arena of gains realized by their character, in addition to being finally credited to the comics of Super-man, as if the credits were a great favor that the company was doing to his true creators … One of the biggest and most profitable character of the comic world, Super-man represents Truth and Justice, due to the opposite world of business in real life, his creators are living a life of misery and scarcity.
The comic characters have evolved, as well as its readers demanded. In the 80s, would arise changes and developments of all kinds and mini-series that would become icons for the whole history. Like V for Vendetta by David Lloyd and Alan More.
In 1986 arrives to the newsstands: Batman the Dark Night Returns by writer and artist Frank Miller. The mini-series written and drawn by Miller, portrayed comic characters like never before, with a more adult and dark approach, raising questions of social relevance, political and economic.
In the same year, 1986 also arrives the Watchmen, Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons. Another epic comic. The series even inspired books about its story and characters. Characters with moral ambiguities and imperfections, portraying maturely personalities full of doubt individuals and fears but, that still did not fail to do what they felt right … or simply what suit them. We then, lost the notion of the one-dimensionality of comics: Good Guy vs. Bad Guy.
In 1989 Tim Burtom becomes director of the film Batman Returns, with actor Michael Keaton. The new Batman screens had nothing to do with the old Batman Adam West and the movies become increasingly more popular in that format. Despite all the fantasy of superheroes, much more mature and deep. The characters are now treating not only with external threats but with our deepest fears and weaknesses.
X-men deals basically with ethnic differences and prejudice and what these differences generate. What opens the door to deal with any kind of differences: sexual, religious, ethnic, etc …
Marvel X-Men # 1 was the best-selling comic of the history. Designed by Jim Lee and written by Chris Claremont, was published in 1991 with different covers and made it 8 million copies sold!!!
90’S TO PRESENT DAY
The 90s were glorious years for the industry of comics. Their magazines sold millions and a new generation of artists and creators was behind the tremendous success: Jim Lee, Todd Mcfarlane, Rob Liefield, Marc Silvestri, Eric Larsen and much more…
Todd Mcfarlane reinvented Spider-man character with a new visual language and is considered one of the greatest if not the greatest designer of Spider-man history. Unfortunately, suit guys from Marvel have had difficulty in admitting the success that artists were bringing to the company.
It wasn’t the characters who were selling, but the style in which the artists were representing the characters that were making the sells!!
Spider-man’s poster and comics did not sell more because they were Spider-man but, because they were designed by Todd Mcfarlane, or Wolverine by Jim Lee, and these artists sought greater freedom and decision-making power to develop their work.
When Marvel declined to give such freedom and power to the artists they began to feel slighted by the company. In 1992 they leave Marvel. The largest and most successful artists of Marvel decide to leave the publisher and open their own business: Image comics.
The great advantage of image comics was that their characters could do whatever they decided, unlike corporate companies like Marvel and DC. Batman holds the Joker more than 40 times, every time the Joker comes back to the streets, he kills again. With Spawn it is different if you are a pedophile, you’re a dead man !! Okay, problem solved!! Not that it haven’t been done before by The Punisher or The Shadow but, it didn’t prevent Image from earning millions of sales with the same concept!!
To face increased competition in recent times the DC comics try to bring and spotlight its main character again, this time killing Super-man. What made sales go up again. This event started the idea of bringing death of other characters to increase sales…
On 11 September 2001, the World Trade Center is hit by a terrorist attack. Marvel had an immediate reaction depicting the incident and praising the people who worked to save innocent lives: firefighters, police, volunteers.
Movies from past few years as Spider-man, could never have been previously produced without being considered pathetic and ridiculous as Spider-Man and Captain America series from the 70’s but, due to the technological advances of recent times, we now have all kinds of super-heroes films with various technological effects and realism that these effects can provide.
Recently The Civil War Marvel raises the question: how much are we willing to sacrifice our freedom in the name of security? Iron-man representing the government and Captain America representing individual freedom.
Check the List of the Best Movies here.
Games on the other hand, allow players to act as if they were their heroes. You can decide between being Spider-Man or Captain America and live an adventure with your favorite hero.
The internet has made possible a new way to read and interact with the comic world. There are all kinds of comics published on the net for people around the world. Become a comic creator has never been so easy as it is today. With just will to do so, your work can be accessed worldwide. Do you have what it takes to make yours?
There are a lot of information and details I am not able to relate here due to time and space but, if there’s anything you would like to add or comment, please fell free to do so. I’ll gladly look over any material you send to me and add to the article if relevant.
Thank you very much for visiting!
That’s all folks. for now…